Beschreibung: Albert Michler Distillery Int. Ltd., 44 Upper Belgrave Road, Bristol, UK, ist zumindest eine ungewöhnliche Adresse für einen Austrian Navy Rum. Der Austrian Empire Navy Rum 18 Jahre wird aus gereiftem Rum aus verschiedenen handverlesenen Fässern, die ehemals Bourbon, Sherry, Portwein und. Die österreichische Marine war die Gesamtheit der Seestreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns. Daneben bestand die österreichische Handelsmarine. Die Marine hatte ihren Ursprung in der seit dem Jahrhundert existierenden Donauflottille und der ab Ende.
Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserve 1863Die Geschichte von Austrian Empire Navy reicht bis ins Jahrhundert zurück, als die Albert Michler Distillery gegründet wurde. Das. Die Blends dieses Kleinods aus Barbados erlangen ihre Reife in Fässern aus amerikanischer und französischer Eiche. Ein kostbarer Tropfen der. Der Austrian Empire Navy Rum stammt nicht aus Österreich, wie der Name vermuten lässt sondern aus der Dominikanischen Republik. Dort wird dieser Rum für.
Austrian Navy Fostering the Discussion on Securing the Seas. VideoTEAM INGOLF - Austrian Navy
This was a political move to impair the legitimacy of the Confederation of the Rhine. Two years earlier, as a reaction to Napoleon making himself an Emperor of the French , Francis had raised Austria to the status of an empire.
Hence, after , he reigned as Francis I, Emperor of Austria. Following Austria's defeat at the Battle of Wagram , the Empire sued for peace.
The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn imposed harsh terms on Austria. These terms eliminated Austria's coastline along the Adriatic, thus destroying the Austrian Navy, with its warships being handed over to the French to guard the newly formed the Illyrian provinces.
Between and , there was no Austrian coastline and subsequently no navy to defend it. Under the conditions of the Congress of Vienna, the former Austrian Netherlands were transferred to the newly created United Kingdom of the Netherlands , while Austria received Lombardy-Venetia as compensation.
These territorial changes gave Austria five ships of the line, two frigates, one corvette , and several smaller ships which had been left in Venice by the French during the Napoleonic Wars.
The decades of warfare Austria had participated in since however had left the Empire on the verge of bankruptcy, and most of these ships were sold or abandoned for financial reasons.
By the end of the decade however, the Austrian Navy began to be rebuilt. The growth of the Austrian Navy in the years following the Congress of Vienna were largely driven by political necessities, as well economic conditions.
During the s and early s, Austrian trade along the Danube and within the Mediterranean grew rapidly. In , the Austrian Danube Steam Navigation Company was founded and in , its steamship Marie Dorothee became the first of its kind to travel the Mediterranean on a voyage between Trieste and Constantinople.
While Austria's merchant marine grew throughout the s and s, the Austrian Navy grew alongside it in order to provide protection on the high seas.
During the Greek War of Independence , the Austrian Navy engaged Greek pirates who routinely attempted to attack Austrian shipping in order to help fund the Greek rebellion against Ottoman rule.
During the same time period, Barbary corsairs continued to prey upon Austrian shipping in the Western Mediterranean.
These two threats greatly stretched the resources of Austria's naval forces, which were still rebuilding after the Napoleonic Wars.
This action resulted in Morocco returning the captured Austrian ship, as well as pay damages to Vienna. The bombardment of Larache resulted in the end of North African pirates raiding Austrian shipping in the Mediterranean Sea.
By the s, an attempt to modernize the Navy had begun. The Austrian government granted new funding for the construction of additional ships and the purchasing of new equipment.
The most notable change which was undertaken was the incorporation of steamships, with the first such ship in the Austrian Navy, the tonne long-ton paddle steamer Maria Anna , being constructed in Fiume.
Maria Anna ' s first trials took place in The third son of Archduke Charles, a famous veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, Friedrich's decision to join the Navy greatly enhanced its prestige among the Austrian nobility and public.
During his time in the Navy, Friedrich introduced many modernizing reforms, aiming to make the Austrian Navy less "Venetian" in character and more "Austrian".
Friedrich and the Austrian Navy had their first major military encounter during the Oriental Crisis of In , the Ottomans attempted to reclaim these territories but after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Nezib , the Ottoman Empire appeared on the verge of collapse.
The Convention offered Muhammad Ali hereditary rule of Egypt while nominally remaining part of the Ottoman Empire if he withdrew from most of Syria.
Muhammad Ali hesitated to accept the offer however and in September the European powers moved to engage Muhammad Ali's forces.
On 26 September, Friedrich, commanding the Austrian frigate Guerriera , bombarded the port of Sidon with British support. The Austrians and British landed in the city and stormed its coastal fortifications, capturing it on 28 September.
After capturing Sidon, Austria's naval squadron sailed on to Acre which bombarded the city in November, destroying its coastal fortifications and silencing the city's guns.
During the storming of the city, Friedrich personally led the Austro-British landing party and hoisted the Ottoman, British, and Austrian flags over the Acre's citadel upon its capture.
In , Archduke Friedrich was promoted to the rank of Vice-Admiral and become Commander-in-Chief of the Navy at the age of 23, but his tenure as the head of the Austrian Navy ended just three years after his appointment when he died in Venice at the age of Across the Austrian Empire, nationalist sentiments among Austria's various ethnic groups led to the revolutions in Austria to take several different forms.
Liberal sentiments prevailed extensively among the German Austrians, which were further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states.
The Hungarians within the Empire largely sought to establish their own independent kingdom or republic, which resulted in a revolution in Hungary.
Italians within the Austrian Empire likewise sought to unify with the other Italian-speaking states of the Italian Peninsula to form a "Kingdom of Italy".
The revolution in Vienna sparked anti-Habsburg riots in Milan and Venice. Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky was unable to defeat the Venetian and Milanese insurgents in Lombardy-Venetia, and had to order his forces to evacuate western Italy, pulling his forces back to a chain of defensive fortresses between Milan and Venice known as the Quadrilatero.
With Vienna itself in the middle of an uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire appeared on the brink of collapse.
Venice was at the time one of Austria's largest and most important ports, and the revolution which began there nearly led to the disintegration of the Austrian Navy.
The Austrian commander of the Venetian Naval Yard was beaten to death by his own men, while the head of the city's Marine Guard was unable to provide any aid to suppress the uprising as most of the men under his command deserted.
Vice-Admiral Anton von Martini, Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, attempted to put an end to the rebellion but was betrayed by his officers, the majority of whom were Venetians, and subsequently captured and held prisoner.
Fearing mutinies, Austrian officers ultimately relieved of these Italian sailors of their duty and permitted them to return home. While this action left the Navy drastically undermanned, it prevented any wide-scale disintegration within the Navy which the Austrian Army had repeatedly suffered from in Italy.
The loss of so many Italian crew members and officers meant that the remaining ships which did not fall into rebel hands in Venice were lacking many crews.
Out of roughly 5, men who were members of the Austrian Navy prior to the revolution, only 72 officers and sailors remained. Further complicating matters for the Austrian Navy was the loss of Venice's naval dockyards, warehouses, its arsenal, as well as three corvettes and several smaller vessels to the Venetian rebels.
Martini's capture left the Navy without a commander for the fifth time in as many months. Gyulai recalled every Austrian ship in the Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and in the Levant.
Due to Trieste's close location to the parts of Italy revolting against Austrian rule at the time, Gyulai also chose the small port of Pola as the new base for the Austrian Navy.
This marked the first time the city had been used as an Austrian naval base, and from onwards the city continued to serve as a base for Austrian warships until the end of World War I.
Meanwhile, fortunes continued to fade for the Austrians. The Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies both joined the war on the side of Sardinia,   the later sending a naval force into the Adriatic in cooperation with Sardinia to help size Venice.
This Italian fleet consisted of five frigates and several smaller vessels acquired by the Italian nationalists in Venice.
Against this force, the Austrian Navy counted three frigates of 44 to 50 guns, two corvettes of 18 and 20 guns, eight brigs of six to 16 guns, 34 gunboats with three guns each, and two steamers of two guns.
Despite its relatively large size for navies in the Adriatic, the Austrian Navy lacked experience against the combined Italian forces and Gyulai decided to withdraw his ships to Pola.
The Austrian fleet was too small to go on the offensive against the Italians, while the Italian naval commander, Rear Admiral Giovanbattista Albini , was under orders not to attack the port of Trieste as its location within the German Confederation may draw in other powers in central Europe against Sardinia.
Early experimentation on the use of a self-propelled explosive device—forerunner to the torpedo—to attack the Italian ships also failure due to the technological constraints of the time.
Additional proposals to break the Italian fleet by using fire ships was rejected as an "inhumane" way of fighting. The stalemate in the Adriatic came to an end as the Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies pulled out of the war.
While Martini unsuccessfully lobbied for the purchase of new steam ships to re-establish a blockade of Venice, Sardinia resumed the war with Austria on 12 March This led to the disastrous Sardinian defeat at the Battle of Novara ten days later.
The Revolutions of marked a turning point in the history of the Austrian Navy. Up until that time, the Navy had been dominated by the Italian language, customs, and traditions.
Prior to the revolution, the Austrian Navy was mostly made up of Italian crew members, the Italian language was the primary language, and even Italian ship names were used over German ones, such as Lipsia rather than Leipzig.
Indeed, in the years before , the Navy was largely considered to be a "local affair of Venice". After retaking Venice, the Austrians acquired several warships which were under construction or already seaworthy.
Most of these ships were added to the strength of the Austrian Navy, increasing the size and strength of the Navy considerably by the year Here the Austrian screw-driven gunboat Kerka crew: was launched in in service until Dahlerup introduced many personal reforms, such as reorganizing the command structure of the Navy, establishing new service regulations, and setting up a school for naval officers.
He also began the process of replacing Italian with German as the spoken de facto language of the Austrian Navy. However, Dahlerup's command style clashed heavily with the prevailing culture within the Austrian Navy and he resigned after just over two years.
At the age of 22, Ferdinand Max became the youngest Oberkommandant in the history of the Austrian Navy, being a year younger than when Archduke Friedrich of Austria assumed command of the navy ten years earlier.
Despite his age, the fact that he had only been in the Navy for four years, and his lack of experience in battle or command on the high seas, Ferdinand Max proved to be among the most effective and successful commanders of the Austrian Navy in history.
He was described by Lawrence Sondhaus in his book The Habsburg Empire and the Sea: Austrian Naval Policy, — as "the most gifted leader the navy had ever had, or ever would have".
He used his prestige, youthful enthusiasm, and love of the Service to promote it in every way possible. Ferdinand Max worked hard to separate the Austrian Navy from its dependence upon the Austrian Army, which had nominal control over its affairs.
Under this new system, Ferdinand Max continued to be the Oberkommandant , but he was no longer responsible for the political management of the fleet.
Ferdinand Max immediately went to work expanding the Austrian Navy. Fears of over-dependence upon foreign shipyards to supply Austrian warships enabled him to convince his brother to authorize the construction of a new drydock at Pola , and the expansion of existing shipyards in Trieste.
Furthermore, Ferdinand Max initiated an ambitious construction program in the ports of Pola, Trieste, and Venice, the largest the Adriatic had seen since the Napoleonic Wars.
While it had been used as a base for the Navy during the Revolutions of , the small dockyards and port facilities, coupled with surrounding swampland had hindered its development.
In addition to Pola's new drydock, Ferdinand Max had the swamps drained and constructed a new arsenal for the city.
By , a screw-powered ship-of-the-line was under construction in Pola after failed bids to construct the ship with British and American shipbuilding firms,  while two screw-frigates and two screw-corvettes were being built in Trieste and Venice respectively.
Ferdinand Max followed up on this progress however by purchasing the steam frigate Radetzky from the United Kingdom in Her design was used for the construction of future ships of the Navy, and marked the beginning of Austria's modern shipbuilding industry.
From onward, a majority of Austria's ships were constructed by domestic shipyards. She was commissioned into the Austrian Navy in after being constructed at the newly built Pola Navy Yard between and As a result of these construction projects, the Austrian Navy grew to its largest size since the War of Austrian Succession over years prior.
Despite these efforts however, the Navy was still considerably smaller than its French, British, or Sardinian counterparts. Indeed, the French Navy's technological and numerical edge proved to be decisive in driving the Austrian Navy to port shortly after the outbreak of the Second War of Italian Independence.
In response to Austria's quick defeat during the Second War of Italian Independence, Ferdinand Max proposed an even larger naval construction program than the one he had initiated upon his appointment as Oberkommandant.
This fleet would be large enough not only to show the Austrian flag around the world, but also to protect its merchant marine as well as thwart any Adriatic ambitions from the growing Kingdom of Sardinia.
However, constitutional reforms enacted in Austria after the defeat, as well as the recent introduction of ironclads into the navies of the world, made the proposal more expensive than he had initially intended.
He quickly toppled the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , the largest state in the region in a matter of months. That duty has been assumed by the Bundespolizei Federal Police , but the ships are still part of the Austrian Military.
Between and , the Austrian semi-regular army was called Volkswehr "People's Defence" , and fought against Yugoslavian army units occupying parts of Carinthia.
It has been known as "Bundesheer" since then, except when Austria was a part of Nazi Germany —; see Anschluss. The Austrian Army did develop a defence plan in against Germany [ citation needed ] , but politics prevented it from being implemented.
In , Austria issued its Declaration of Neutrality , meaning that it would never join a military alliance. The Austrian Armed Forces' main purpose since then has been the protection of Austria's neutrality.
With the end of the Cold War , the Austrian military have increasingly assisted the border police in controlling the influx of undocumented migrants through Austrian borders.
The war in the neighbouring Balkans resulted in the lifting of the restrictions on the range of weaponry of the Austrian military that had been imposed by the Austrian State Treaty.
Troops entering Klagenfurt after a manoeuvre in Carinthia September, Austrian mountain artillerymen during a manoeuvre in Tyrol.
Engineers building a bridge across the Danube during a manoeuvre in Troops of predecessor organisation B-Gendarmerie training with M1 Garands during the s.
Under the constitution, the President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In reality, the Chancellor has the decision-making authority, exercised through the Minister for National Defence.
The Chancellor also chairs the National Defence Council, which has as its members a vice-chairman, the minister for national defence, an appointee of this minister, the Chief of the General Staff, and a parliamentary representative.
The minister for national defence, acting in co-operation with the minister for interior, coordinates the work of the four major committees under the National Defence Council: the Military Defence Committee; the Civil Defence Committee; the Economic Defence Committee; and the Psychological Defence Committee.
The Chief of the General Staff acts as the senior military adviser to the Minister for National Defence, assists the minister in the exercise of his authority, and, as the head of the general staff, is responsible for planning.
However, the army commander exercises direct operational control of the Bundesheer in both peacetime and wartime.
Article 79 of the constitution, as amended in , states that the Army is entrusted with the military defence of the country. Insofar as the legally constituted civil authority requests its co-operation, the army is further charged with protecting constitutional institutions and their capacity to act, as well as the democratic freedoms of the inhabitants; maintaining order and security in the interior; and rendering aid in disasters and mishaps of extraordinary scope.
In administering the armed forces, the Ministry for National Defence is organized into four principal sections and the inspectorate general: Section I deals with legal and legislative matters; Section II handles personnel and recruitment matters, including discipline and grievances; Section III is concerned with troop command, schools, and other facilities, and it also comprises departments G-1 through G-5 as well as a separate department for air operations; and Section IV deals with procurement and supply, quartermaster matters, armaments, and ordnance see fig.
The general troop inspectorate is a separate section of the ministry with responsibility for co-ordination and fulfilment of the missions of the armed forces.
The armed forces consist solely of the army, of which the air force is considered a constituent part. In , the total active complement of the armed forces was 52,, of whom 20, to 30, were conscripts undergoing training of six to eight months.
The army had 46, personnel on active duty including an estimated 19, conscripts , and the air force had 6, personnel 2, conscripts.
On 1 March , the "Wehrgesetz " became law, which encompassed the "Heeresgliederung " plan to grow the Austrian Armed Forces to , 84, active, , militia by the early s to be able to fully employ the Austrian de:Raumverteidigung 's concept.
A total of 30 new Landwehrstammregimenter were to be raised. On 6 October , the Austrian government enacted the "Heeresgliederung ", which instructed the armed forces to stop the growth of the militia at , Afterwards only the militia's infantry grew, making the timeframe Austria's armed forces reached their maximum strength.
On 29 May the "Wehrgesetz " was cancelled and the army began to shrink, which accelerated with the Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Wehrgesetz , Fassung vom The arrival of Warsaw Pact forces in southern Bavaria within the first six days after the start of hostilities would have prompted NATO to use tactical nuclear weapons to block the enemy approach routes through Upper Austria.
The expected crossing of the Danube was expected to occur between Tulln and Krems , from where the enemy forces would have turned West to reach the Sankt Pölten area.
After taking Sankt Pölten the Austrian armed forces expected the combined Warsaw Pact forces to strike West to take possession of the Linz - Steyr - Wels , supported by an advance of two Czechoslovak People's Army divisions through the Mühlviertel to the North of Linz.
After taking possession of the Linz basin the Warsaw Pact attack would have continued into Bavaria. In the Austrian Armed Forces enacted its new concept of Raumverteidigung.
Key zones were set up in those areas of the national territory, which an aggressor had to take possession of in order to achieve his military goals.
Area security zones were set up to deny an aggressor the possibility to bypass key zones and prevent the massing, movement, supply, and maintenance of enemy units.
Operationally the aim was to block the direct march lines through layered defenses in the key zones and to prevent an aggressor from freely using the space in the area security zones through mobile warfare.
Both types of zones were to be defended by militia formations. The four subzones formed the Central Area in Austria's mountainous interior, which was outside of the anticipated main axis of a Warsaw Pact advance.
In the event of an attack and an occupation of most of Austria, one or more the sub zones would form the national territory, which would justify the continuation of Austria as a subject of international law.
The central area was therefore of essential importance and had to be defended at its entrances. The Army Command and Austrian government would have retreat to a bunker complex in St Johann im Pongau in the central area.
The capital Vienna would not have been defended and was therefore excluded from defense preparations. Each key zone and area security zone, and Block Zone 33 were overseen during peacetime by a Landwehrstammregiment, which were tasked with training the militia forces needed for the defense of their assigned zone.
Some of the Landwehrstammregiment also trained and fielded an active Jäger battalion. In case of war the Landwehrstammregiments would have reformed as Landwehr Regiments with various types of militia battalions and companies, allowing the regiments to fight delaying actions from fortified positions as well has hit and run attacks on enemy formations trying to pass through their zone.
The Landwehr regiments formed the area-bound Landwehr and fielded the following types of Landwehr units:  . Operationally the country was divided initially into three operational areas Operationsraum , which were commanded by the Army Command.
The Air Division and army's support troops were under direct Army Command. In wartime the operational commands would command nine brigades, which formed the mobile Landwehr.
The mobile Landwehr was the Austrian armed forces reserve, which once the intentions of the opponent were determined, could be used to counterattack enemy formations.
The mobile Landwehr consisted of six light Jäger brigades, which would only be fully manned during wartime, and three Panzergrenadier brigades, equipped with main battle tanks and infantry fighting vehicles , which were fully manned at all times.
The staffs of the six Jäger brigades would have been formed upon war by the armed forces military commands, which in peacetime had territorial functions in the states.
The three Panzergrenadier brigades were assigned to the 1st Panzergrenadier Division and based along the Danube valley from Vienna to Linz.
Each Austrian military command was numbered from 1 to 9, with all zones and units assigned to the command or part of the command starting with the same number.
The only exception was the 9th Panzergrenadier Brigade, which carried the number of the Vorarlberg Military Command in the extreme West of the country, but was based near Vienna in the East of the country and manned by conscripts from Vienna.
At the heart of this crossing of influences in the mediterranean that saw Italians, Austro-Hungarians, Russians, British, French and even German rival fleets, seeing an alliance between Italy and former enemies, the houses of Habsburg and Germany, in response to the alliance made since between France, England and Russia.
This alliance however upset a section of the Austrian Staff led by its chief, General Von Hötzendorf, which predicted a new war with their old enemy.
Naval expenditure was relatively low and it had to do with often obsolete ships. This budget represented Part of the explanation can be found in the systematic opposition of Hungary in new spending to the Navy even though it was considered by the Austrians as important power status.
Poster of the Austro-Hungarian Fleet. Despite of this, in , the new Chief of Staff of the Navy, Admiral Spaun, presented a shipbuilding plan to counter the rise of the Italian navy.
He was forced by the imperial defense minister to half its budget. He resigned and was replaced by Vice Admiral Von Montecuccoli, more conciliatory.
Therefore, no whatsoever program was launched before The plan however incorporated new ships, mostly dreadnoughts which formed the active core of the renewed Austro-Hungarian Navy during the Great War.
The second part of the program was authorized under his successor in , Admiral Haus, but unfortunately interrupted because of the outbreak of the conflict.
The only ships launched afterwards were destroyers to replace losses. They built but also modernized most of the units after The few ships built in which not has been demolished served in various capacities in the fleet in Thus, the Herzerzog Ferdinand Max, heroic veteran of the Battle of Lissa, long served as a coastguard, and despite being struck off the lists in , it was still registered active in Pola.
The Kronprinzessin Erzerzogin Stefanie and Konprinz Herzerzog Rudolf and were used as school pontoons and opportunely resumed service as coastguard ironclads in SMS Radetzky.
Overall because of too modest budgets and the lack of ambitious plans, the Austro-Hungarian fleet was aging and in consisted of virtually obsolete ships.
The most recent dated back to The new ships initiated by the plan were the pre-dreadnoughts Radetzky of the class, Tegetthoff class, Admiral Spaun cruiser class, Tatra class destroyers and Torpedo Boats of the TB74 and 82 classes.
War shipbuilding was limited to two light cruisers, four destroyers, nineteen destroyers, and nineteen U-Bootes. Here is a list of the ship that will be covered: -Dreadnoughts: Tegetthoff class.
U10 class. Austro-Hungarian Submarines The Austrians built German submersible designs, either under license or pre-assembled and delivered for completion by rail.
Austria-Hungary also received as reinforcements sixty German U-boats, operating under the Austrian flag but with a German crew.
They obtained some successes. Eventually, the Austro-Hungarians also managed to capture and reuse the French submarine Curie, which was found entangled in the net blocking the harbor of Pola.
As Italy had declared war on Austro-Hungary but not Germany, the German boats operated under the Austrian ensign and were temporarily commissioned into the Austrian Navy.
Although the Austrian submarine fleet did not grow to large numbers it had an impressive record - damaging French dreadnought 'Jean Bart', and sinking:.
Submarines - French 'Circe', Italian 'Nereide'. Key to Austrian titles. August Strength. Wartime additions. Key to Main Characteristics.
Tonnage - standard displacement; Speed - designed speed at standard displacement, rarely attained in service; Main armament - sometimes changed as the war progressed; secondary armament usually changed; Complement - normal peace time.
Exceeded in war with consequent reduction in living space and higher battle casualties; Year - year or years class completed and normally entered service.
Only includes ships completed up to war's end; Loss Positions - estimated from location unless available from reliable sources; Casualties - totals of men lost, or survivors plus saved, will often exceed peacetime complements.
Austrian torpedo and gun calibres in inches:. Torpedoes: Guns: August Strength 3. In August , the three completed 'Tegetthof' dreadnoughts and three 'Radetzky' pre-Dreadnoughts formed the First Battle Squadron, spending most of the war as a fleet-in-being.
With the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the state of Yugoslavia was formed by the southern Slavs and declared on the side of the Allies.
Apparently ignoring the new political situation, the Italians went ahead with a planned attack on Pola. Early in the morning of the 1st November and with few defensive precautions now being taken, two Italian frogmen, Maj of Naval Engineers Raffaele Rossetti and Doctor Lt Raffaele Paolucci, slipped into the naval base and attached mines to the dreadnought and liner 'Wien'.
Both ships sank, 'Viribus Unitis' capsizing and going down around dawn. Several hundred men died including the new Captain. Wartime Additions 1.
Leaving Pola on the 9th, she and the three other 'Tegetthof' dreadnoughts of the 1st Battle Division, First Battle Squadron sailed to support a planned cruiser raid on the Otranto Barrage, now believed by the Germans to be a serious obstacle to U-boat movements.
Two Italian anti-submarine motor boats - 'Mas. She rolled over and sank at Due to the conditions - twilight etc, MAS 21 probably attacked her and not 'Tegetthof' as noted above.
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